Hundreds of fans were filmed chanting 'Vinicius is a monkey' ahead of the match at the Metropolitano Stadium.
Meanwhile, an image circulating on social media appears to show an Atletico fan holding up a racist doll clothed in a Real Madrid shirt, in an apparent reference to Vinicius.
The abuse continued inside the stadium, with home supporters targeting the Brazil international during the match.
According to reports in Spain, fans were heard abusing Vinicius and his international teammate Rodrygo after they danced to celebrate the latter's opening goal in a 2-1 win for Real Madrid.
Last week, Vinicius was criticised for dancing after scoring against Mallorca at the Bernabeu.
Pedro Bravo, president of the Spanish agents association, claimed the Brazilian was not respecting his opponents, comparing his behaviour to that of a monkey.
Bravo later apologised for his comments, claiming he misused a metaphor.
🗣️CÁNTICOS RACISTAS CONTRA VINICIUS de cientos de aficionados del @Atleti a las puertas del Metropolitano:— Tiempo de Juego (@tjcope) September 18, 2022
📢"Eres un mono, Vinicius eres un mono".
⛔️FUERA LOS VIOLENTOS Y RACISTAS DEL FÚTBOL
📹Video @chema_medina #AtletiRealMadrid pic.twitter.com/KoHSNrtd3G
Vinicius vowed to continue using his celebration and claimed his critics are bothered by a "victorious black Brazilian in Europe".
"Those are dances to celebrate the cultural diversity of the world. Accept it, respect it. I'm not going to stop,” said the 22-year-old.
Vinicius subsequently received the backing of a number of his international teammates including Neymar, Richarlison and Gabriel Jesus.
Atletico Madrid captain Koke warned Vinicius he could be in "trouble" if he chose to dance at the Metropolitano Stadium, although the Spain international also added that the Brazilian was free to celebrate as he wished.
After following through on his promise to dance against Atletico, Vinicius took to social media after the match.
He posted a picture of himself and Rodrygo celebrating, alongside the caption: "Baile donde quieras…", which translates as "Dance where you want…"
Victory for Real Madrid sees them maintain their 100 per cent record in La Liga this season.
Carlo Ancelotti's side have now won all six of their league games and are two points clear of rivals Barcelona at the top of the table.
Featured Image Credit: Twitter/vinijr & Twitter/tjcope & Alamy
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